# Lab Excerise: Scientific Process

1. Explain each of the basic steps of the scientific process.
2. Describe the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
3. Define empirical data. Provide and describe an example of something about Earth that we know because of empirical data.
4. You have observed that the sun rises in a different location at certain times of the year, and then back again. Describe a method of data collection that would help you define the range over the year for the sunrise on the horizon at your location.
5. Using empirical data, argue with a climate denial argument that, “it hasn’t warmed since 1998.” (http://www.skepticalscience.com/global-warming-sto… )
6. Identify and describe one type of data collection that has an end, and one type of data collection that will always be ongoing.

Part 2. There has been very much in the news in recent years about increasing CO2 levels, and global warming. Using the Keeling Curve website (https://scripps.ucsd.edu/programs/keelingcurve/ ), address the following.

1. Explain briefly the history of the Keeling Curve.
2. Explain how this is empirical data.
3. Starting with the current week, and working back to 800,000 years ago, explain the trends seen in the data.
4. How is the Keeling Curve an example of the scientific method?

Part 3. In your own field of study, identify and describe one way in which empirical data is collected and used.

Section 2 – Earthquakes, Geologic Structures, and Plate Tectonics
Part 1. Use your textbook and interactive lab lecture to answer the following questions about earthquake measurement.

1. Use figure 6.20, page 184 in your textbook to help you fill in the blanks: (I FILLED OUT)
 S-P, sec Magnitude Amplitude mm 4 3 5 8 4 75 25 5.5 100 2 20
1. The Pacific plate is moving at an average of 5 cm per year, but this has changed over time. Use the following schematic to calculate the average rate of movement from Kilauea to:
1. Midway
2. Gardner
3. Necker
4. Oahu

*divide the number of km by number of millions of years, then multiply by 0.1 for conversion to cm/year

1. Describe the difference between the Mercalli Scale and Richter Scale.
2. How many times more ground shaking happens with a 6.0 earthquake over a 4.0 earthquake?
3. How many times more energy is release with a 6.0 over a 4.0 earthquake?
4. Describe the P waves, S waves, and surface waves.

Part 2. Use your textbook and interactive lab lecture to answer the following questions in your own words.

1. In a compressional regime, would we find more normal or more reverse faults, and why.
2. Would we find normal faults in a compressional regime or tensional regime, and why?
3. Describe the differences between a normal fault and a reverse fault.
4. Describe the differences between anticlines and synclines.
5. Describe the difference in the rock unit age relationship between domes and basins.
6. Describe a strike slip fault. Provide an example of one.
7. Which of the structures discussed above are the result of brittle deformation?
8. Which of the structures discussed above are the result of ductile deformation?
9. Using the diagrams below, which of these are the result of ductile deformation?
10. Which of these diagrams are brittle deformation?